Nginx is one of the most popular web servers in the world and is responsible for hosting some of the largest and highest-traffic sites on the internet. Tengine is a branch of Nginx which is created by Alibaba Inc.

MariaDB is a database server developed by some of the original authors of MySQL and offers drop-in replacement functionality.


Before you begin this guide, you should have a regular, non-root user with sudo privileges configured on your server.

We will build all components from the source code. Of course, it’s OK for you to install them using the apt-get command. All steps have been tested on Ubuntu 14.04.

Install Tengine

Install Required Packages

apt-get install libpcre++-dev libssl-dev zlib1g-dev

Download and Compile the Source Code

$tar -zxvf tengine-2.1.2.tar.gz
$mkdir /usr/local/nginx
$mkdir /var/tmp/nginx
$cd tengine-2.1.2
$./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx \
    --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf \
    --pid-path=/var/run/ \
    --lock-path=/var/lock/nginx.lock \
    --user=nginx \
    --group=nginx \
    --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/client \
    --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/proxy \
    --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/fastcgi \
    --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/scgi \
    --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/uwsgi \
    --with-ipv6 \
$make -j$nproc
$make install

Set File Permissions

As we will create some temporary files in the folder /var/tmp. So we must create it before starting Tengine. Besides, for security, we need to create an account for the Tengine webserver.

$useradd -s /sbin/nologin nginx
$cd /usr/local/nginx
$chown nginx:nginx -R /usr/local/nginx/html
$chown nginx:nginx -R /usr/local/nginx/logs
$chown nginx:nginx -R /var/tmp/nginx
$chmod 700 -R /usr/local/nginx/html
$chmod 700 -R /var/tmp/nginx
$chmod 777 -R /usr/local/nginx/logs

Start Tengine Manually

Now, we have installed Tengine on your Ubuntu. I suggest you create a symbolic link for Nginx.

ln -s /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx /usr/bin/nginx

And you can start Tengine using the following command


Open your web browser and access the http://localhost. You will get a welcome page.

You can stop Tengine by

nginx -s stop

You can restart Tengine using

nginx -s reload

Register Tengine as a Service

Maybe, it’s quite inconvenient to use the command mentioned above. So you can use the service command provided by Ubuntu.

Before you use the command, you need to do as follows:

$wget -O /etc/init.d/nginx
$chmod 755 /etc/init.d/nginx

As we located the configuration file of Tengine in /etc/nginx, and located the runtime files in /var. We need to edit the script downloaded just now.

  • Change Line 84 to PIDSPATH=/var/run
  • Change Line 95 to lockfile=/var/lock/nginx.lock
  • Change Line 96 to NGINX_CONF_FILE="/etc/nginx/nginx.conf"

Now, you can start/stop Tengine using

$service nginx start/stop

Install MariaDB

Download and Compile the Source Code

$tar -zxvf mariadb-10.0.14.tar.gz
$cd mariadb-10.0.14/
$apt-get install cmake
$apt-get install g++ openssl libssl-dev libncurses5-dev libboost-dev bison
$make -j$nproc
$make install

Register MariaDB as a Service

$cd /usr/local/mysql
$cp support-files/my-large.cnf /etc/my.cnf
$cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql
$chmod 755 /etc/init.d/mysql
$ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql /usr/bin/mysql

Set File Permissions

$useradd -s /sbin/nologin mysql
$chown mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/data -R

Initial Setup MariaDB

$/usr/local/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

You can start MariaDB using the following command:

$service mysql start

You will get the following output:

Starting MySQL
. *

You can log in to MariaDB using the following command:


You will get the following output:

Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 4
Server version: 10.0.14-MariaDB-log Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle, SkySQL Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)] > exit

Install PHP

Install Required Packages

$apt-get install libgmp-dev libreadline6-dev libxslt1.1 libxslt1-dev

Download and Compile the Source Code

$tar -zxvf php-5.6.3.tar.gz
$cd php-5.6.3
$apt-get install libbz2-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev libjpeg-dev libpng12-dev libfreetype6-dev libmcrypt-dev
$./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/php \
    --with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql \
    --with-mysql-sock \
    --with-mysqli=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config \
    --with-fpm-user=nginx \
    --with-fpm-group=nginx \
    --with-libdir=lib64 \
    --enable-fpm \
    --enable-soap \
    --with-libxml-dir \
    --with-openssl \
    --with-mcrypt \
    --with-mhash \
    --with-pcre-regex \
    --with-sqlite3 \
    --with-zlib \
    --enable-bcmath \
    --with-iconv \
    --with-bz2 \
    --enable-calendar \
    --with-curl \
    --with-cdb \
    --enable-dom \
    --enable-exif \
    --enable-fileinfo \
    --enable-filter \
    --with-pcre-dir \
    --enable-ftp \
    --with-gd \
    --with-openssl-dir \
    --with-jpeg-dir \
    --with-png-dir \
    --with-zlib-dir \
    --with-freetype-dir \
    --enable-gd-native-ttf \
    --enable-gd-jis-conv \
    --with-gettext \
    --with-gmp \
    --with-mhash \
    --enable-json \
    --enable-mbstring \
    --disable-mbregex \
    --disable-mbregex-backtrack \
    --with-libmbfl \
    --with-onig \
    --enable-pdo \
    --with-pdo-mysql \
    --with-zlib-dir \
    --with-pdo-sqlite \
    --with-readline \
    --enable-session \
    --enable-shmop \
    --enable-simplexml \
    --enable-sockets \
    --enable-sysvmsg \
    --enable-sysvsem \
    --enable-sysvshm \
    --enable-wddx \
    --with-libxml-dir \
    --with-xsl \
    --enable-zip \
    --enable-mysqlnd-compression-support \
$make -j$nproc
$make install
Errors and Solutions

While you using configuare, you may come across following issues:

Issue #1: configure: error: Unable to locate gmp.h
Solution: ln -s /usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/gmp.h /usr/include/gmp.h

Issue #2: configure: error: Cannot find libmysqlclient under /usr/local/mysql
Solution: ln -s /usr/local/mysql/lib /usr/local/mysql/lib64

Register PHP-FPM as a Service

For convenience, we create symbolic links for PHP.

$ln -s /usr/local/php/bin/php /usr/bin/php
$ln -s /usr/local/php/bin/phpize /usr/bin/phpize
$ln -s /usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm /usr/bin/php-fpm

Now, we will create the script for PHP-FPM in order to start PHP-FPM using service command.

$touch /etc/init.d/php-fpm
$chmod 755 /etc/init.d/php-fpm

Paste following script to /etc/init.d/php-fpm

#! /bin/sh
# Provides:          php-fpm
# Required-Start:    $remote_fs $network
# Required-Stop:     $remote_fs $network
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: starts php-fpm
# Description:       starts the PHP FastCGI Process Manager daemon



php_opts="--fpm-config $php_fpm_CONF"

wait_for_pid () {
    while test $try -lt 35 ; do
        case "$1" in
            if [ -f "$2" ] ; then
            if [ ! -f "$2" ] ; then
        echo -n .
        try=`expr $try + 1`
        sleep 1

case "$1" in
        echo -n "Starting php-fpm "
        $php_fpm_BIN $php_opts
        if [ "$?" != 0 ] ; then
            echo " failed"
            exit 1
        wait_for_pid created $php_fpm_PID
        if [ -n "$try" ] ; then
            echo " failed"
            exit 1
            echo " done"
        echo -n "Gracefully shutting down php-fpm "
        if [ ! -r $php_fpm_PID ] ; then
            echo "warning, no pid file found - php-fpm is not running ?"
            exit 1
        kill `cat $php_fpm_PID`
        wait_for_pid removed $php_fpm_PID
        if [ -n "$try" ] ; then
            echo " failed. Use force-quit"
            exit 1
            echo " done"
        echo -n "Terminating php-fpm "

        if [ ! -r $php_fpm_PID ] ; then
            echo "warning, no pid file found - php-fpm is not running ?"
            exit 1
        kill -TERM `cat $php_fpm_PID`
        wait_for_pid removed $php_fpm_PID
        if [ -n "$try" ] ; then
            echo " failed"
            exit 1
            echo " done"
        $0 stop
        $0 start
        echo -n "Reload service php-fpm "
        if [ ! -r $php_fpm_PID ] ; then
            echo "warning, no pid file found - php-fpm is not running ?"
            exit 1
        kill -USR2 `cat $php_fpm_PID`
        echo " done"
        echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop|force-quit|restart|reload}"
        exit 1

Now, you can start the PHP-FPM service using:

$service php-fpm start

Make PHP Work with Tengine

This is the important step to make PHP work in Tengine. First of all, we need to edit the configuration file of Tengine.

$vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  1. Change the Line 2 to user nginx

  2. Add index.php to Line 53 (index index.html index.htm)

  3. Remove the sharp(comment) in Line 71-77, and change the HTML folder in fastcgi_param. You will get content as follows:

location ~ \.php$ {
    root html;
    fastcgi_index index.php;
    fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME 
    include fastcgi_params;

OK, Let’s turn to PHP configuration file: /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf. You need to create a default configration using following command:

$cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf
$vim php-fpm.conf
  1. Change the Line 25 to pid = run/

  2. Change the Line 148 to user = nginx

  3. Change the Line 149 to group = nginx

To test you have configured the PHP and Tengine successfully. You can create a PHP file in the HTML folder.

$touch /usr/local/nginx/html/index.php
$echo "<?php phpinfo();" >> index.php
$service nginx restart
$service php-fpm restart

Now, open your browser, you will get the PHP information page.

Test: Install PHPMyAdmin

To test MariaDB and PHP, we will install PHPMyAdmin. If you are sure that your MariaDB and PHP can work normally. You can skip this section.

$p7zip -d phpMyAdmin-4.2.12-all-languages.7z
$mv phpMyAdmin-4.2.12-all-languages /usr/local/nginx/html/phpmyadmin
$chown nginx:nginx /usr/local/nginx/html/phpmyadmin -R[/bash]

Now, open your browser, access http://localhost/phpmyadmin. You will get into the PHPMyAdmin page.

Topic: Rewrite in Nginx(Tengine)

After migrating to Nginx, you will find that the URL rewrite not working. In Apache httpd, the URL rewrite depends on the .htaccess file. In Nginx, you need to add URL rewrite rules in nginx.conf.

For WordPress, you can add the following lines to nginx.conf:

server {
    listen       80;

    location / {
        root   html/wordpress;
        index  index.html index.htm index.php;
        if (!-e $request_filename) {
            rewrite ^([_0-9a-zA-Z-]+)?(/wp-.*) $2 last;
            rewrite ^([_0-9a-zA-Z-]+)?(/.*\.php)$ $2 last;
            rewrite ^ /index.php last;

    location ~ \.php$ {
        fastcgi_index  index.php;
        fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /usr/local/nginx/html/wordpress$fastcgi_script_name;
        include        fastcgi_params;

As this guide was an introduction to Tengine, PHP-FPM, and MariaDB, there’s a lot more to write about it. For example, the multi-user or multi-site environment. But also running this efficiently on a LowEndBox. Possibly even making the installation easier and configuring SSL. That’s for the future, though 😉


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